1. B. Ning, S. Chandra, J. Rosen, E. Multala, M. Argrave, L. Pierson, I. Trinh, B. Simone, M. Escarra, S. Drury, K. Zwezdaryk, C. Lyon, E. Norton, T. Hu, “Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell activation with a rapid on-chip IGRA,” ACS Nano, Vol.17 (2), 1206-1216 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c09018
  2. I. O. Oguntoye, S. Padmanabha, M. Hinkle, T. Koutsougeras, A. J. Ollanik, and M. D. Escarra, “Continuously Tunable Optical Modulation Using Vanadium Dioxide Huygens Metasurfaces,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol.15 (34), 41141-41150 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c08493
  3. T. Ismael, N. J. Grinalds, M. A. Abbas, N. Hill, C. E. Luthy, M. D. Escarra, “Correlative spatial mapping of optoelectronic properties in large area 2D MoS2 phototransistors,” Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol.10 (34), 2300455 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.202300455
  4. K.O. Minakova, M.V. Kirichenko, R.V. Zaitsev, M.D. Escarra, O.M. Chugai, and N.O. Kuzmenko, “Development of Modular Design Energy Generation and Storage System for Autonomous Power Supply,” Journal of Nano-& Electronic Physics, Vol. 15 (5) 05009(8pp) (2023). https://doi.org/10.21272/jnep.15(5).05009
  1. I.O. Oguntoye, B.K. Simone, S. Padmanabha, G.Z. Hartfield, P. Amrollahi, T.Y. Hu, A.J. Ollanik, and M.D. Escarra, “Silicon Nanodisk Huygens Metasurfaces for Portable and Low-Cost Refractive Index and Biomarker Sensing,” ACS Applied Nano Materials, Vol.5 (3), 3983-3991 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.1c04443
  2. W. Skelton, Y. Ji, L. Artzt, C. Spitler, G. Ingrish, K. Islam, D. Codd, and M.D. Escarra, “Design and field testing of a sunflower hybrid concentrator photovoltaic-thermal receiver,” Cell Reports Physical Science, Vol.3 (5), 100887 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrp.2022.100887; Selected by the journal Nature as a Research Highlight. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-01313-x
  3. K. M. Islam, T. Ismael, C. Luthy, O. Kizilkaya, and M. D. Escarra, “Large-Area, High-Specific-Power Schottky-Junction Photovoltaics from CVD-Grown Monolayer MoS2,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol.14 (21), 24281-24289 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c01650
  1. Y. Ji, L.E. Artzt, W. Adams, C. Spitler, K. Islam, D. Codd, and M.D. Escarra, “A Transmissive Concentrator Photovoltaic Module with Cells Directly Cooled by Silicone Oil for Solar Cogeneration Systems,” Applied Energy, Vol.288, 116622 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116622
  2. K.M. Islam, R. Synowicki, T. Ismael, I. Oguntoye, N. Grinalds, and M.D. Escarra, “In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Optical Properties of Monolayer, Few-Layer, and Thin-Film MoS2 from 190 to 1700 nm and Their Application in Photonic Device Design,” Advanced Photonics Research, Vol.2 (5), 2000180 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/adpr.202000180
  3. A.J. Ollanik, I. Oguntoye, Y. Ji, and M.D. Escarra, “Resonance tuning for dynamic Huygens metasurfaces,” Journal of the Optical Society of America B, Vol. 38 (9), C105-C112 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.427848


  1. D.S. Codd, M.D. Escarra, B. Riggs, K. Islam, Y. Ji, J. Robertson, C. Spitler, J. Platz, N. Gupta, F. Miller. “Solar Cogeneration of Electricity with High-Temperature Process Heat.” Cell Reports Physical Science, Vol. 1 (8), 100135 (2020). Journal cover article. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrp.2020.100135
  1. C.N. Eisler, C.A. Flowers, E.C. Warmann, J.V. Lloyd, P. Espinet-Gonzalez, S. Darbe, M.S. Dee, M.D. Escarra, E.D. Kosten, W. Zhou, and H.A. Atwater. “The polyhedral specular reflector: A spectrum-splitting multijunction design to achieve ultrahigh (>50%) solar module efficiencies.” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Vol. 9 (1), 174-182 (2019). dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2018.2872109
  2. K. Islam, B. Riggs, Y. Ji, J. Robertson, C. Spitler, V. Romanin, D. Codd, and M.D. Escarra. “Transmissive microfluidic active cooling for concentrator photovoltaics.” Applied Energy 236, 906-915 (2019). dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.12.027
  3. J. Robertson, B. Riggs, K. Islam, Y. Ji, C. Spitler, N. Gupta, D. Krut, J. Ermer, F. Miller, D. Codd, and M.D. Escarra. “Field Testing of a Spectrum-Splitting Transmissive Concentrator Photovoltaic Module.” Renewable Energy 139, 806-814 (2019). dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.02.117
  4. J. Robertson, D. Blomdahl, K. Islam, T. Ismael, M. Woody, J. Failla, M. Johnson, X. Zhang, and M. Escarra. “Rapid-throughput solution-based production of wafer-scale 2D MoS2.” Applied Physics Letters 114, no. 16, 163102 (2019). dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5093039
  5. S. Darbe, M.D. Escarra, E.C. Warmann, and H.A. Atwater. “Simulation and partial prototyping of an eight‐junction holographic spectrum‐splitting photovoltaic module.” Energy Science & Engineering, Vol. 7 (6), 2572-2584 (2019). dx.doi.org/10.1002/ese3.445 
  6. A. Ollanik, G.Z. Hartfield, Y. Ji, J.T. Robertson, K. Islam, and M.D. Escarra. “Characterization of Dynamic and Nanoscale Materials and Metamaterials with Continuously-Referenced Interferometry.” Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 7 (24), 1901128 (2019). dx.doi.org/10.1002/adom.201901128
  1. B. Bourgeois, S. Luo, B. Riggs, Y. Ji, S. Adireddy, K. Schroder, S. Farnsworth, D. Chrisey, and M. Escarra. “Pulsed photoinitiated fabrication of inkjet printed titanium dioxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite thin films.” Nanotechnology 29, no. 31 (2018): 315401. dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aac306
  2. A.J. Ollanik, J.A. Smith, M.J. Belue, and M.D. Escarra, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Huygens Metasurfaces from the Ultraviolet to the Infrared,” ACS Photonics, Vol. 5 (4), 1351-1358 (2018). dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsphotonics.7b01368
  3. A.J. Ollanik, I.O. Oguntoye, G.Z. Hartfield, and M.D. Escarra, “Highly Sensitive, Affordable, and Adaptable Refractive Index Sensing with Silicon-Based Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Advanced Materials Technologies, Vol.4(2) 1800567, 1-9 (2018). dx.doi.org/10.1002/admt.201800567
  4. M.D. Escarra, D. Codd, F. Miller, J. Ermer, V. Romanin, B.C. Riggs, J. Robertson, Y. Ji, K. Islam, C. Davis, M. Woody, C.M. Spitler, J.K. Platz, N. Gupta, J. Tubbs, D. Krut, “A Hybrid CPV/T System Featuring Transmissive, Spectrum-Splitting Concentrator Photovoltaics,” Proceedings of the 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC) (2018). dx.doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547930
  1. E.C. Warmann, C. Flowers, J. Lloyd, C.N. Eisler, M.D. Escarra, and H.A. Atwater, “Design of photovoltaics for modules with 50% efficiency,” Energy Science and Engineering, Vol. 5 (2), 69-80 (2017). dx.doi.org/10.1002/ese3.155
  2. Y. Ji, Q. Xu, B. Riggs, K. Islam, A. Ollanik, J. H. Ermer, D. D. Krut, V. Romanin, D. Codd, and M. D. Escarra, “Optical Design and Validation of an Infrared Transmissive Spectrum Splitting Concentrator Photovoltaic Module,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Vol. 7 (5), 1469-1478 (2017). dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2716960
  3. B.C. Riggs, R. E. Biedenharn, C. Dougher, Y. Ji, Q. Xu, V. Romanin, D. S. Codd, J. M. Zahler, M. D. Escarra, “Cost Competitive Concentrator Photovoltaics for Solar Thermal Applications,” Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2017). dx.doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366018
  4. Y. Ji, Q. Xu, B. Riggs, J. Robertson, K. Islam, V. Romanin, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and M. D. Escarra, “Transmissive Spectrum-Splitting Concentrator Photovoltaic Cells and Modules,” Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2017). dx.doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366129
  5. J. Robertson, X. Liu, C. Yue, M. D. Escarra and J. Wei, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis of Monolayer and Few-layer MoS2 via Thermal Vapor Sulfurization,” 2D Materials 4, no. 4 (2017): 045007. dx.doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/aa8678 
  6. B. Riggs, R. Biedenharnb, C. Dougherc, Y. Ji, Q. Xu, V. Romanin, D. Codd, J. Zahler, M. D. Escarra, “Techno-economic analysis of hybrid PV/T systems for process heat using electricity to subsidize the cost of heat,” Applied Energy 208 (2017): 1370-1378. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.09.018.
  1. Q. Xu, Y. Ji, D.D. Krut, J.H. Ermer, and M.D. Escarra, “Transmissive concentrator multijunction solar cells with over 47% in-band power conversion efficiency,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 109, 193905 (2016). dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4967376
  2. Q. Xu, Y. Ji, B. Riggs, A. Ollanik, N. Farrar-Foley, J. H. Ermer, V. Romanin, P. Lynn, D. Codd, and M. D. Escarra, “A transmissive, spectrum-splitting concentrating photovoltaic module for hybrid photovoltaic-solar thermal energy conversion,” Solar Energy, Volume 137, 1 November 2016, Pages 585-593. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2016.08.057
  3. B. Riggs, N. Farrar-Foley, S. Deckoff-Jones, Q. Xu, V. Romanin, D. Codd, and M. Escarra, “Thermal Characterization of Concentrated Solar Absorbance using Resistive Heaters,” Proceedings of the 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)dx.doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750233
  1. Y. Ji, A. Ollanik, N. Farrar-Foley, Q. Xu, L. Madrone, P. Lynn, V. Romanin, D. Codd, and M. Escarra, “Transmissive spectrum splitting multi-junction solar module for hybrid CPV/CSP system,” Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2015). dx.doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2015.7355766
  1. S. Darbe, M.D. Escarra, E.C. Warmann, and H.A. Atwater, “Holographic spectrum splitting in eight-junction, ultra-high efficiency photovoltaic module,” an invited paper in High and Low Concentrator Systems for Solar Electric Applications VIII (Proceedings of the SPIE), (2013). dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2024610
  2. M.D. Escarra, S. Darbe, E.C. Warmann, and H.A. Atwater, “Spectrum-splitting photovoltaics: Holographic spectrum splitting in eight-junction, ultra-high efficiency module,” Proceedings of the 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2013). dx.doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744503
  3. H.A. Atwater, M.D. Escarra, C.N. Eisler, E.D. Kosten, E.C. Warmann, S. Darbe, J. Lloyd, and C. Flowers, “Full spectrum ultrahigh efficiency photovoltaics,” an invited paper in the Proceedings of the 39th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference (2013). dx.doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744457
  4. E.C. Warmann, C.N. Eisler, E.D. Kosten, M.D. Escarra, and H.A. Atwater, “Spectrum-splitting photovoltaics: Materials and device parameters to achieve ultrahigh system efficiency,” Proceedings of the 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2013). dx.doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744845
  5. M.D. Escarra, L.T. Le, N.M. Urban, M. Oppenheimer, and C.F. Gmachl, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensing for carbon sequestration leakage monitoring,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2348-2356 (2013). dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2013.2253731
  6. H.A. Atwater, A. Polman, E. Kosten, D. Callahan, P. Spinelli, C. Eisler, M. Escarra, E. Warmann, and C. Flowers, “Nanophotonic design principles for ultrahigh efficiency photovoltaics,” AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1519, 17-21 (2013). dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4794700
  7. M.D. Escarra, Quantum cascade lasers and optical metamaterials: Mid-infrared semiconductor nanostructures and their applications. Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken, Germany (2013). ISBN-13: 978-3-659-30618-1



  1. D. Zhang, M. Gordon, J.M. Russo, S. Vorndran, M. Escarra, H. Atwater, and R.K. Kostuk, “Reflection hologram solar spectrum-splitting filters,” High and Low Concentrator Systems for Solar Electric Applications VII (Proceedings of the SPIE), Vol. 8468, 846807 (2012). dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.929187
  1. M.D. Escarra, S. Thongrattanasiri, W.O. Charles, A.J. Hoffman, V.A. Podolskiy, and C. Gmachl, “Enhanced bandwidth and reduced dispersion through stacking multiple optical metamaterials,” Optics Express, Vol. 19, No. 16, 14990-14998 (2011). dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.014990
  1. S. Thongrattanasiri, N.A. Kuhta, M.D. Escarra, A.J. Hoffman, C.F. Gmachl, and V.A. Podolskiy, “Analytical technique for subwavelength far field imaging,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, 101103 (2010). Applied Physics Letters Top 20 Most Downloaded Article, September 2010. dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3487779
  2. M.D. Escarra, A. Benz, A.M. Bhatt, A.J. Hoffman, X. Wang, J.Y. Fan, and C. Gmachl, “Thermoelectric effect in quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, 500-509 (2010). dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2010.2050304
  3. B.E. Brumfield, J.T. Stewart, S.L.W. Weaver, M.D. Escarra, S.S. Howard, C.F. Gmachl, and B.J. McCall, “A quantum cascade laser CW cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a supersonic expansion source,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 81, 063102 (2010). Review of Scientific Instruments Top 20 Most Downloaded Article, June 2010. dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3427357
  4. K.J. Franz, P.Q. Liu, J.J. Raftery, M.D. Escarra, A.J. Hoffman, S.S. Howard, Y. Yao, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.Y. Fan, J.B. Khurgin, and C. Gmachl, “Short injector quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 46, No. 5, 591-600 (2010). dx.doi.org/10.1109/JQE.2009.2030896
  5. P.Q. Liu, A.J. Hoffman, M.D. Escarra, K.J. Franz, J.B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.Y. Fan, and C.F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nature Photonics, Vol. 4, 95-98 (2010). dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2009.262
  1. M.D. Escarra, A.J. Hoffman, K.J. Franz, S.S. Howard, R. Cendejas, X. Wang, J.Y. Fan, and C. Gmachl, “Quantum cascade lasers with voltage defect of less than one longitudinal optical phonon energy,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, 251114 (2009). dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3155429
  2. E.N. Bentil, F. Toor, A.J. Hoffman, M.D. Escarra, and C.F. Gmachl, “Rapid and minimally invasive quantum cascade wafer testing,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 21, No. 8 (2009). dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2009.2014392
  3. J.B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, P.Q. Liu, A.J. Hoffman, M.D. Escarra, K.J. Franz, and C. Gmachl, “Role of interface roughness in the transport and lasing characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, 091101 (2009). Applied Physics Letters Top 20 Most Downloaded Article, March 2009. dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3093819
  4. A.J. Hoffman, P.X. Braun, M.D. Escarra, S.S. Howard, K.J. Franz, and C. Gmachl, “Lasing-induced reduction of core heating in high wall plug efficiency quantum cascade lasers,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, 041101 (2009). dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3073044
  5. E.N. Bentil, F. Toor, A.J. Hoffman, M.D. Escarra, and C.F. Gmachl, “Rapid and minimally invasive quantum cascade wafer testing,” Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers VIII (Proceedings of SPIE), Vol. 7230, 72300T (2009). dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.810258
  1. J.A. Deibel, K. Wang, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, and D.M. Mittleman, “The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides,” an invited paper in Comptes Rendus Physique, Vol. 9, No. 2, 215-231 (2008). dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crhy.2007.07.011
  1. J.A. Deibel, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, K.L. Wang, and D.M. Mittleman, “Finite-element method simulations of guided wave phenomena at terahertz frequencies,” an invited paper in the Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 8, 1624-1640 (2007). dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2007.898817
  1. J.A. Deibel, K.L. Wang, M.D. Escarra, and D.M. Mittleman, “Enhanced coupling of terahertz radiation to cylindrical wire waveguides,” Optics Express, Vol. 14, No. 1, 279-290 (2006) [Also appearing in the January 2006 issue of the Virtual Journal of Terahertz Science and Technology]. dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.14.000279
  1. J.A. Deibel, M.D. Escarra, and D.M. Mittleman, “Photoconductive terahertz antenna with radial symmetry,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 41, No. 5, 226-228 (2005). dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:20057824